Frequently the ancient Jewish belief in resurrection of the body is pitted against the ‘Greek’ belief in the immortality of the soul. Of course, this is hopelessly simplistic, given that there were plenty of ancient Jews who held to immortality of the bodiless soul, and plenty of ancient Greeks who didn’t.
But just to complicate things further, it’s worth pointing out that even within Plato himself – that great champion of the immortality of the soul (as opposed to the body) – there are different conceptions of immortality. Here are two quite different conceptions:
1) The soul of the noble person, which is incorruptible, is freed from the prison of the body at death, and enjoys immortality (see Phaedo)
2) Those who are mortal must seek immortality through reproduction – either of physical offspring, or, which is better, through spawning ideas which will outlive them (see Symposium)
So we shouldn’t be too quick to say that ‘Greeks’ sought immortality in the concept of an eternal soul – because even within Plato himself, the desire for immortality can find different expressions.